Friday, December 7, 2012

Musings: Land to Sea


Happily, gratefully, digging in soil plumped and enlivened by 3 inches of rain after a long stretch of too dry, I got to thinking about the “The Dust Bowl” documentary, which vividly imprinted on my mind. Its release seems eerily prescient, given the current drought through much of the nation and Hawaii.

Mostly, though, the film got me thinking anew about how humans lay utter waste to the most splendid creations, some of them millions of years in the making. And so often, we engage in these destructive acts even though we know they're wrong, because of greed and stupidity.

Which brings me to Kauai, or more specifically, the stuff that is running off this island and into the sea, killing the coral at Anini and Makua, and perhaps elsewhere, too.

Because it is almost certain, according to Dr. Thierry Work, a wildlife disease specialist with the U.S. Geological Survey, that land-based activities are the culprit.

I recently interviewed Dr. Work for a short article in Honolulu Weekly, and we talked about the possible causes of the infectious outbreak of cyanobacteria that he characterizes as an “epidemic” at Anini and Makua.

We know that corals have disease,” he said. “All animals get diseases. The problem is when you have these flare ups on a large scale. That's an unusual event. What is it about North Kauai and what is it about now that this thing is suddenly showing up? That's what we're trying to find out. When these wildlife diseases bloom like this, it's an indication that something has gone awry in the ecosystem.”

He's got his ideas about the specific causes, “but no data yet to back them up,” he told me. Still, all signs point to the usual suspects. One is soil run-off. “We know that sedimentation on corals is not a good thing,” he said. But since the disease has been seen in places without sedimentation, that's not the sole factor.

When I asked if it could be sewage, he replied, “Absolutely. The sediment is only what's visible. It may be a combination of injection wells, a recirculation of [contaminated] sediments....”

So let's stop for a moment and think about Anini and Makua. What do they have in common? I mean aside from hordes of sunscreen-slathered snorkelers, which Work dismissed as a possible cause.

Well, both coastlines are lined with those really big — as in sleeps 8 to 16 — vacation rentals, which are actually mini resorts, with their septic tanks and leachfields, heavily fertilized and irrigated yards and regular pesticide applications in and around the house. All of that flows and seeps into the sea.

To top it off, both areas saw some significant flooding last spring, which increased the amount of chemical runoff and sedimentation landing on the reef. Anini has experienced additional erosion from construction at Princeville, as well as houses built on the bluff at Anini Vista.

When Work and Dr. Greta Aeby returned to Anini last week, they were amazed at the amount of sediment that had accumulated on the reef in just a month. “That sediment's got to be coming from somewhere,” Work said.

It's still unclear whether the cyanobacteria, which Work first observed at Hanalei Bay in 2009, is a new introduction, or was “present at low levels and allowed to bloom.” One thing is certain, he said: “The widespread distribution and number of corals affected is something I've seen only on North Kauai.”

That doesn't mean it isn't elsewhere. Only a fraction of the reefs around Hawaii have been surveyed, Work said, which is why he “really depends on the public to keep an eye out.”

Scientists are now trying to determine the exact cause and extent of the disease, as well as possible impacts on marine and human health. “Like it or not, ecosystem health is very related to human health,” Work said.

In the meantime, there are “things we can do right now to reduce sedimentation and run off from land,” Work said.

Is anything happening in that regard?

The state will have to take the lead,” Work said. “The regulatory and conservation agencies will have to come to the table. Hopefully management agencies can work on their end to mitigate land-based activities that could be contributing. I’m hoping this serves as a catalyst.””

So given the gravity of the situation, is there any type of task force that springs into action when Work or other scientists discover epidemic diseases on our reefs, the same reefs that support fisheries, provide recreation for the treasured tourist trade?

All of our reports are sent to the DLNR folks,” Work said. “They're aware of it.”

Thus far, the only official response has come from the mayor's office, which has scheduled an informational meeting for 4 to 5 p.m. next Thursday, Dec. 13, at Hale Halawai in Hanalei.

It's not too late to do something, Work said. There is still live coral at both Makua and Anini, and the most recent visit to Anini seemed to indicate the disease's pace had slowed.

Nature has remarkable abilities to recover, but sometimes we have to help it out,” Work said.

The thing we’re concerned about here is the Western Caribbean and Atlantic lost 60 to 70 percent of their corals due to disease, but have no idea why,” Work said. “We don’t want that to happen in the Hawaiian Islands.”

10 comments:

Anonymous said...


Its no surprise that our coral is dying with all the Round Up that people use, and also the stuff their pee and shit:

The Associated Press has conducted an extensive investigation into the drinking water in at least twenty-four major American cities across the country, which contain trace amounts of a wide array of pharmaceuticals. The amounts might be small, but scientists are worried about the long-term health and environmental consequences of their presence in the water supplies of some forty-one million Americans. http://www.alternet.org/story/80505/sedatives_and_sex_hormones_in_our_water_supply
Fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides don't all come from farms, though. Most of them these days actually come from peoples' lawns and gardens. This is part of urban runoff. Water rushes over the many hard (impermeable) surfaces that humans create, over roadways and into gutters, and from there through pipes to the nearest stream. This type of pollution contributed by whole settlements of humans is called non-point-source pollution. Urban runoff also contains a toxic soup of cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogenic hydrocarbons) that are deposited by cars, buses, and trucks on roadways. Rainwater that runs off the road collects in ditches, which run alongside the road collecting more toxins until they finally empty into a stream. The toxins include chemicals like hexane and cyclohexane, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), formaldehyde, methanol, acrolein, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde, as well as lead. If these chemicals can cause cancer, birth defects, and immune suppression in humans, it is a good bet that they will do similar damage to fishes and birds. http://chamisa.freeshell.org/pollution.htm

Dr Shibai

Anonymous said...

There is also the issue of the cumulative effect of all these chemicals creating a toxic cocktail that bathes the coral and fish.

Anonymous said...

what about the acres of golf courses that line the coast -- got to be bad to have the greens and fairways look so good. another example of how the wealthy contribute more than their share to our ecological problems.

Anonymous said...

"So given the gravity of the situation, is there any type of task force that springs into action when Work or other scientists discover epidemic diseases on our reefs"
Hahahahahahahahahahahahaha- good one Joan.

Anonymous said...

Those TVRs are the equal to two or three (or more) resorts but they never got EIS or SMA. no review of cumlaative impact.

Anonymous said...

no question all the TVRs have made an impact, but pretending all those old houses with failing cess pits aren't an even bigger problem is just playing politics.

People love Tahiti Nui, but he's been in violation for a dozen years now pumping tons of sewage into the ground in a grossly inadequate system.

Anonymous said...

Correct, the old septic systems are the problem. Golf course use treated sewage to irrigate the course.

There are just to many people. Solve that if you can...

Anonymous said...

"There are just too many people. Solve that if you can."

Yes, just feed the males GMO soy and they will become sterile.

Anonymous said...


Eh it's jes da american way: out of sight, out of mind. And boy dose americans are out of their minds! Aue.







Anonymous said...

How much pesticides/herbacides are the golf courses using? What are their effects on the environment? Are they monitored? It seems like they can create and mix whatever combinations that want, and use whatever quanitity they feel like. They spray in high wind conditions, and even while golfers are playing, which tells me that they are beyond ignorant about the potential dangers.

Then there's the question of the agent orange that was sprayed in Princeville / Hanalei in the 60s? What happened to the "13-15" barrels that were thrown away?

Oh and what chemicals are the Taro farmers using, and how much?